Open Access of COVID-19-related publications in the… | F1000Research

Abstract:  Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has made funders, researchers and publishers agree to have research publications, as well as other research outputs, such as data, become openly available. In this extraordinary research context of the SARS CoV-2 pandemic, publishers are announcing that their coronavirus-related articles will be made immediately accessible in appropriate open repositories, like PubMed Central, agreeing upon funders’ and researchers’ instigation.

Methods: This work uses Unpaywall, OpenRefine and PubMed to analyse the level of openness of articles about COVID-19, published during the first quarter of 2020. It also analyses Open Access (OA) articles published about previous coronavirus (SARS CoV-1 and MERS CoV) as a means of comparison.

Results: A total of 5,611 COVID-19-related articles were analysed from PubMed. This is a much higher amount for a period of 4 months compared to those found for SARS CoV-1 and MERS during the first year of their first outbreaks (335 and 116 articles, respectively).  Regarding the levels of openness, 88.8% of the SARS CoV-2 papers are freely available; similar rates were found for the other coronaviruses. Deeper analysis showed that (i) 67.4% of articles belong to an undefined Bronze category; (ii) 76.4% of all OA papers don’t carry any license, followed by 10.4% which display restricted licensing. These patterns were found to be repeated in the three most frequent publishers: Elsevier, Springer and Wiley.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that, although scientific production is much higher than during previous epidemics and is open, there is a caveat to this opening, characterized by the absence of fundamental elements and values ??on which Open Science is based, such as licensing.

 

Welcome — The Turing Way

“The Turing Way is an open source community-driven guide to reproducible, ethical, inclusive and collaborative data science.

Our goal is to provide all the information that data scientists in academia, industry, government and in the third sector need at the start of their projects to ensure that they are easy to reproduce and reuse at the end.

The book started as a guide for reproducibility, covering version control, testing, and continuous integration. But technical skills are just one aspect of making data science research “open for all”.

In February 2020, The Turing Way expanded to a series of books covering reproducible research, project design, communication, collaboration, and ethical research.”

A Community Handbook for Open Data Science

“The Turing Way started in December 2018 and has quickly evolved into a collaborative, inclusive and international endeavor with the aim of uncovering gold standards to ensure reproducible, ethical, inclusive and collaborative data science. How did this happen? I think two ingredients were central to The Turing Way‘s success: extraordinary community building and a clear enticing vision….

Anyone can contribute is a central theme. And not only that: anyone can bring ideas to the table. And folks are doing just that. At the time of writing this post 168 people have contributed. So on average the project has gained 9 new contributors every month since it’s initiation….”

13 artworks by DAG Museums are now “Open Access” ! | GIF-IT-UP India #OpenGLAM

“The OpenGLAM world [galleries, libraries, archives, museums] just got richer by 13 historic artworks from India thanks to the folks at DAG Museums. Now that might sound like a small number, but for India, this is a huge step towards providing Open Access.

These high-resolution artworks have been released by DAG as part of India’s first ever GIF-IT-UP Challenge. These are now free for you to download and use as you wish, without any fear of breaking copyright laws. The CC by SA license allows you to use and alter an image even for commercial purposes, as long as you give credit and license your new work under the identical terms.”

Four reports on the OA monograph: Review – Hill – – Learned Publishing – Wiley Online Library

“Key points

 

Increasing interest in open access (OA) monographs is reflected by the publication of four reports in 2019.
The cost of transitioning monographs to OA is a constant source of concern among all stakeholders.
Print remains an important medium for monographs – but for how long?
The fully OA licences used for journals are considerably less popular within the monograph ecosystem.
The technical interoperability taken for granted among journals is not yet evident in digital monograph publishing….”

Using Open Pedagogy to Engage LIS Students: A Case Study

Abstract:  INTRODUCTION This case study describes the experimental use of open pedagogy to teach graduate-level library and information science (LIS) students in a newly developed course on international and comparative librarianship. Open pedagogy is the theory and practice of engaging students as creators of course content rather than requiring them to be consumers of it. In this case, students created an open textbook; each student authored a chapter about libraries and the field of librarianship in an assigned non-North American country. The textbook was developed under a Creative Commons license as an open educational resource (OER), allowing free use, remixing, and repurposing in future sections of the course or in similar courses offered in LIS programs at other institutions. METHOD The author used student perception data collected from a voluntary survey instrument and from a compulsory reflection paper assignment to assess the efficacy of implementing an open pedagogy framework in the course. RESULTS Collected data suggests the experiment produced results perceived by the majority of students as efficacious in the given context. DISCUSSION Students were enthusiastic in their embrace of creating renewable versus disposable coursework, and they expressed great satisfaction with the course outcomes of contributing to the professional literature, building the discipline’s nascent OER record, and having a publication to feature in their curricular and professional dossiers. CONCLUSIONS Massive shifts in teaching and learning demand radical transitions. Open pedagogy is a response to that demand that requires additional research and experimentation.

 

Evolving our support for early sharing | Nature Communications

“Nature Communications encouraged rapid dissemination of results with the launch of Under Consideration in 2017. Today we take one more step by offering an integrated preprint deposition service to our authors as part of the submission process….

From today, our authors have the option to take advantage of In Review, a free preprint deposition service integrated with the submission process to our journal. The preprint of the author’s original submission will be posted (with a permanent DOI, under a CC-BY licence) on the multidisciplinary platform hosted by our partner Research Square at the same time as the submission is being considered by our editorial team….”

GWLA Licensing Principles

“We are at an inflection point in the environment of Big Deals, publisher negotiations, and the evolution of open access models. The 39 libraries that make up the Greater Western Library Alliance reflect a diversity of strategies to address their campus pressures and budget outlook, and their paths to open scholarship. In addition, we are preparing for a significant staffing transition among the GWLA staff.

In this time of change and uncertainty, it is important that we remind ourselves and declare the values and principles that bind us together. These licensing principles are an articulation of our values and priorities applied to all of our licenses and agreements for resources to support the teaching and research at our institutions….

Scholarly Sharing

Sharing of individual articles by faculty and students with colleagues for scholarly research use is an established norm to support research, scholarship, and scholarly communication. Our agreements should support this ‘scholarly sharing.’

 Open Access

Knowledge belongs in the commons. GWLA libraries support the worldwide endeavor to further knowledge and discovery through open scholarship. GWLA libraries will work with vendors to investigate and offer various paths to securing open dissemination of research output.”

GWLA Licensing Principles

“We are at an inflection point in the environment of Big Deals, publisher negotiations, and the evolution of open access models. The 39 libraries that make up the Greater Western Library Alliance reflect a diversity of strategies to address their campus pressures and budget outlook, and their paths to open scholarship. In addition, we are preparing for a significant staffing transition among the GWLA staff.

In this time of change and uncertainty, it is important that we remind ourselves and declare the values and principles that bind us together. These licensing principles are an articulation of our values and priorities applied to all of our licenses and agreements for resources to support the teaching and research at our institutions….

Scholarly Sharing

Sharing of individual articles by faculty and students with colleagues for scholarly research use is an established norm to support research, scholarship, and scholarly communication. Our agreements should support this ‘scholarly sharing.’

 Open Access

Knowledge belongs in the commons. GWLA libraries support the worldwide endeavor to further knowledge and discovery through open scholarship. GWLA libraries will work with vendors to investigate and offer various paths to securing open dissemination of research output.”

Sharing Openly Licensed Content on Social Media: A Conversation with GLAM

The following is a summary of “GLAM Collections on Social Media: Navigating Copyright Questions—a conversation with Aleksandra Strzelichowska, Mikka Gee Conway and Anne Young” published on 31 May 2020 by Scann (licensed CC BY). 

How often do you debate whether to share an openly licensed work on social media? If you do share a work, how often do you fret over whether you’ve provided proper attribution? I’ll answer first: All the time!

Sharing openly licensed works (e.g. images, GIFs, videos, etc.) on social platforms can feel like a fraught space to venture into—and as we’ve learned over the last few years, this is especially true for GLAM (galleries, libraries, archives, and museums). To answer some of the recurring questions these institutions have about sharing openly licensed works on their social media platforms, including works from their own collections, the copyright community at Europeana, Open GLAM, and the Special Interest Group on Intellectual Property at the Museum Computer Network organized a digital panel featuring Aleksandra Strzelichowska (Senior Online Marketing Specialist at Europeana Foundation), Mikka Gee Conway (General Counsel, the Getty Museum), and Anne Young (Director of Legal Affairs and Intellectual Property at Newfields) on 30 April 2020. 

In this post, I briefly summarize a few notes from this discussion to help inform your decisions on what and how to share on social media.

Copyright policies and guidance for sharing on social media accounts

Europeana follows a four-page document that includes clear guidelines for sharing content online. Essentially, the organization only shares media that is deemed “freely re-usable,” which means it’s in the public domain (e.g. through CC0) or licensed CC BY or CC BY-SA. If a piece of content has a “no reuse statement” then Europeana will seek individual permissions from the copyright holder—but that’s a rare occurrence. The Getty Museum’s general policy is to only share copyrighted content if Getty holds the copyright license or if it can make a strong “fair use” case. Otherwise, Getty tends to focus on sharing material found in the public domain. Finally, Newfields follows a similar policy as Getty. In particular, it focuses on seeking permission for reusing works from donors, affiliated artists, and/or estates. 

Policies in practice: Attribution on social media

An example from Creative Commons on giving attribution for a GIF with a CC BY-NC-ND license on Twitter. See the full example here.

Due to the nature of social media platforms, including the limited character counts, it can be difficult to provide detailed attribution for shared media. However, it’s important to make a concerted effort, particularly if the content being shared is done so under a “fair use” claim. On Twitter, for example, the best practice is to utilize the “reply” function to provide detailed attribution when necessary. On Instagram, it’s more difficult to provide proper attribution since there is no linking function in the description of posts, therefore it may be best to stick with content that is in the public domain or that the organization holds the copyrights to. To overcome this issue, Europeana created a landing page that is linked to in its biography description on Instagram. This page houses all of the images the organization posts on its Instagram account, providing source and attribution information.

For editorial pieces, like blog posts, that are housed on a website and then shared through social media, it’s important to provide attribution for openly licensed works in the body of that post. For example, the caption of an image can contain the attribution information and/or it can be added to the image’s metadata. If the image is in the public domain, it’s best practice to also identify provenance—where the work is stewarded—this includes listing the GLAM the image was sourced from. For more guidance, check out this page.

CC licenses and terms of service: What about NC-licensed content?

This can be a sticky issue for GLAM institutions, complicated by the terms of service for each individual social media platform. Some assume that if a social media platform’s terms require or indicate that a user gives the platform the license to use their content for commercial purposes (like marketing) then the spirit of the NonCommercial (NC) license is violated. Thus, the conservative approach is to avoid posting NC-licensed content. 

However, there is some basis for thinking otherwise. CC Legal Counsel Sarah Pearson explained that CC licenses don’t allow sub-licensing so uploaders are not granting the platform any rights directly to content that isn’t theirs under copyright. Most social media terms of service require that a user either a) owns the copyright to their posted content or b) has the right to use that content. When that’s the case, openly licensed content is appropriate to share on the social media platform as long as the license requirements are followed by the uploader. As for NC-licensed content specifically, so long as the uploader is sharing the content for noncommercial purposes, the NC restriction is likely more of an issue for the platform, if at all, to the extent the platform must rely on the NC license. 

The important role of digital asset management systems

Many organizations, especially GLAM institutions, have digital asset management systems (DAMS) that contain object metadata, including rights information, that everyone within the organization has access to. At Getty, for example, the DAMS is directly supported by a Rights and Reproduction team member that is responsible for entering objects into the system and ensuring the rights information for each object is included. Their system also includes separate folders that specify what an object can be used for, whether it’s for a blog post or a social media post. In some cases, objects are approved for use on the website or for distribution by the media but not for social media platforms, so the DAMS is crucial for ensuring those objects are not used improperly.

Newfields, which also has a DAMS, and Getty offer training to team members on how to use the system since the metadata can be complicated to read and interpret. This is particularly true when non-copyright issues come up for a particular object, such as privacy and/or publicity considerations. Since Europeana aggregates data, its process is more straightforward. Put simply, if the object is on the website then it should be OK to use for any purpose by the marketing and communications team.  

Guidelines and strategies on how users can reuse shared content

La Donna Della FinestraImage credit: La Donna Della Finestra, 1881 by Dante Gabriel Rossetti via Birmingham Museums Trust (CC0). The featured version of this image has icons by Samsul Rizzai, Austin Condiff, Maxim Kulikov, and Kendedes licensed CC BY via the Noun Project.

Europeana has been educating users on reusing its content through engagement initiatives. For example, during the annual GIF IT UP! contest, it routinely educates people on open licensing and attribution requirements. If someone submits a GIF based on a work that is not openly licensed, they receive an email explaining why their submission wasn’t accepted and are given instructions on what they can do to rectify the situation. At Getty, following the launch of its open content program in 2013, the organization published a clear set of terms of use and provided additional educational resources on its website. Today, it’s looking at dedicating many of its open content to the public domain using CC0 so that there’s less confusion for users. 

Open access in the age of COVID-19

The panelists agreed that due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a conversation around copyright has emerged that feels especially urgent as it’s tied to this moment—specifically regarding what GLAMs should and shouldn’t do. In some cases, boundaries are definitely being pushed. However, the panelists urged institutions to take a more cautious and measured approach when embarking on new digital projects and initiatives. “I definitely feel that it’s important to be measured about all this, and think about what it is exactly about our changed situation that might merit pushing boundaries of copyright?,” Mikka argued. “That is absolutely true,” Anne replied, “…at the end of the day, while there might be pushing some boundaries we still need to proceed cautiously because the laws [themselves] haven’t changed.”

P.s. I highly recommend reading the full conversation for more insights and examples from Europeana, Getty, and Newfields—and bookmarking it for future reference! 

Our friends over at Open GLAM want to hear from you! How do you attribute openly licensed works on social media? What challenges are you facing in this area? What training or education are you looking for? Let them know by sending an email, tweeting at OpenGlam, or joining their monthly calls

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