Dramatic Growth of Open Access June 30, 2017


Correction: DOAJ will soon surpass 2.5 million articles, not a quarter of a billion as originally reported. 

Highlights

Open access continues to demonstrate robust growth on a global scale, in terms of works that are made available open access, ongoing growth in infrastructure (new repositories, journals, book publishers), strong growth for new initiatives such as SocArxiv, BioRxiv, the Directory of Open Access Books, SCOAP3, as well as ongoing strong growth in established services such as BASE, PubMed / PubMedCentral, Internet Archive (check out the new Collections including a Trump archive and FactChecker), DOAJ (almost 2.5 million articles searchable at the article level), RePEC and arXiv. Ongoing growth in infrastructure and OA policy give every reason to expect this growth to be ongoing.

Open Data Version

Morrison, Heather, 2014, “Dramatic Growth of Open Access”, hdl:10864/10660, Scholars Portal Dataverse, V17,

Details

This edition of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access highlights two of the new kids on the OA block – SocArxiv and BioRxiv, modeled on early OA success story arXiv, topping the quarterly growth by percentage with percentage growth of about 30% each! SocArxiv now has 1,200 documents and BioRxiv 12,800.

Similarly, a relative newcomer, the Directory of Open Access Books, is in both first and second place for annual growth by percentage with 68% growth for OA books and 40% of OA publishers in the past year for a total of 8,172 open access books and 217 OA book publishers.

SCOAP3, a global initiative to transform high-energy physics publishing to open access, is showing remarkable growth, 39% in the last year and 8% in the last quarter for a total of 15,790 articles funded.

To celebrate the growth of all OA services two pictures are presented of the growth of the largest collective OA search engine that I am aware of. Together, the 5,000 content providers who contribute metadata to the Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) have made available over 112 million documents. Around 60% of these are open access, so the number of OA documents in the world can be said to be somewhere about 67 million. BASE also posts their own online statistics table and chart – check it out here.

I wish I had the time to applaud and celebrate the growth of each and every OA service, but with 5,000 services contributing to BASE (and others that don’t), if I worked on this 365 days a year I would have to cover 14 initiatives every day. So please feel free to help out by applauding and celebrating the services most relevant to you – the journals in your discipline, your institutional repository, the services you find most helpful to search.

Below you will find tables listing the top services by quarterly (5% or more) and annual growth (10% or more). For the full numbers download the open data version (link above). As usual Internet Archive is well represented, with 5 items in the list of the top 13 services by quarterly growth and the top 18 services by annual growth. Internet Archive also offers 2 intriguing new services under Collections – a Trump Archive with over a thousand videos and a Fact Checker collection with over 400 items, available at https://archive.org/details/tvhttps://archive.org/details/tv

Of course PubMed and PubMedCentral are up there in the growth charts, in this quarter for total number of items (5% quarterly growth) as well as what looks (to me) like hesitant new steps by a substantial number of journals, with a 26% increase in the number of contributing journals that provide some OA and a 14% increase in the number of journals that provide OA to selected articles. The number of journals providing immediate free access and/or all articles open access continues to increase, so this is clearly growth, not backsliding.

DOAJ is included in the top growth services with 14% growth in the number of articles searchable at article level. DOAJ now has over 2.49 million articles searchable at the article level and should soon surpass 2.5 million articles.

arXiv and RePEC are on the list for strong growth in articles, and ROARMAP for growth in OA policies.
 

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Quarterly growth (percentage) June 2017
32% SocArxiv preprints 1,200
29% BioRxiv all articles 12,280
18% # of academic peer-reviewed books (DOAB) 8,172
18% # publishers (DOAB) 217
8% SCOAP3 articles 15,790
8% Internet Archive Software 178,635
7% Video (movies)  (Internet Archive) 3,437,542
7% Texts  (Internet Archive) 12,821,051
5% Images (Internet Archive) 1,476,743
5% # of content providers (BASE) 5,621
5% Audio (recordings)  (Internet Archive) 3,477,033
5% Webpages (Internet Archive) (in billions) 298
5% PubMedCentral (number of items) 4,400,000

 
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Annual growth (percentage) 06/30/17
68% # of academic peer-reviewed books (DOAB) 8,172
40% # publishers (DOAB) 217
39% SCOAP3 number of archives 15,790
34% Video (movies)  (Internet Archive) 3,437,542
33% Internet Archive: Software 178,635
29% # of content providers (BASE) 5,621
27% Texts  (Internet Archive) 12,821,051
26% PMC journals some OA 609
25% Internet Archive: Images 1,476,743
20% # of documents (BASE) 112,458,360
17% Audio (recordings)  (Internet Archive) 3,477,033
17% RePEc journal articles 1,491,037
14% # of articles searchable at article level (DOAJ) 2,493,835
14% PMC select deposit journals 4,296
13% RePEC downloadable 2,143,844
13% Total Policies (ROARMAP) 872
13% PMC # items 4,400,000
10% arXiv  http://arxiv.org/ 1,278,739

 This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access Series Feel free to copy and share - with love.  Note that images are compressed by the software to reduce file size, and they are also quickly outdated. You are welcome to use the images, but my recommendation is to download the data and make your own graphics. It's easier than you think with tools like modern spreadsheet software.
 

Dramatic Growth of Open Access December 31, 2016

Download data here

 Highlights

Arguably the best indicator of the global collaborative growth of open access, whether through archives or publications, is the ongoing impressive growth of what we can access through the Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, which surpassed two major milestones in 2016: over 100 million documents (about 60% open access) and 5,000 content providers. The growth rates (22% for documents, 27% for content providers) are particularly impressive given the high pre-existing content rate. This is amazing success not just for BASE, but for all of us. If you’ve published a thesis through an institutional repository that allows for metadata harvesting, or published an article in a journal that contributes article-level data for metadata harvesting, your contribution is reflected here. This is a meta-level indicator of our global success.

I’ve added a new metric for medical open access, a keyword search of PubMed for “cancer” for articles with no date limit, last 5 years, last 2 years, and last year, further limited to free fulltext to determine the percentage of items for which fulltext is available. This ranges from 26% overall (no date limit), to 40 – 44% for items published in the last 2 – 5 years, to 32% for articles published in the last year.

Also added this quarter: OECD iLibrary – with more than 11,000 free books, this one publisher’s OA collection is nearly double the size of the 167 publishers included in the impressivley growing Directory of Open Access Books! arXiv, in addition to an over 10% growth rate last year, inspired the recent development of two similar services, socArXiv and bioRxiv, newly added to facilitate future growth tracking. The DOAJ get-tough inclusion policy and March 2016 major weeding means the DOAJ count for titles, countries and journals searchable at the article level are all down from last year, while articles searchable at the article level through DOAJ continued to show robust growth of 13%. DOAJ’s quarterly growth is back to an impressive rate of just under 3 titles per day. RePEC surpassed a milestone of 2 million downloadable items this year, while Internet Archive surpassed 3 milestones: there are now more than 3 million video and audio recordings, and more than 11 million texts (the number of IA web pages archived is way down, by the billions – such a difference it strikes me as likely due to a glitch in counting, whether before or after). Recently Open Journal Systems announced that OJS is now used by more than 10,000 active journals which <>.

Kudos and thanks to everyone in the open access movement – every researcher, author, editor, publisher, archive manager, librarian, policy-maker, and activist who is making open access happen. What of 2017? My advice: let’s remember the beautiful vision of the potential unprecedented public good of open access – forged not at a time of peace and certainty, but rather within months of the trauma of 9/11 – repeated below – and keep on making it happen.

BOAI vision:

An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge.

Selected numbers and growth by service:

Directory of Open Access Journals 

Highlights: in March 2016 DOAJ removed more than 3,000 journals, reflecting a new get-tough inclusion policy. All journals that had not gone through DOAJ’s new application process were removed. As a result, in spite of robust quarter since the removal process, most of DOAJ’s key data are lower at the end of 2016 than at 2015, with the exception of number of articles searchable through DOAJ which grew by 13%.

  • 9,455 journals (down from 10,963 in 2015, a 14% decrease. Note that this quarter DOAJ added 246 journals for a current growth rate of close to 3 titles per day).
  • 6,634 journals searchable at article level (down from 6,780 in 2015, a 2% decrease. Note that this quarter DOAJ increased the number of searchable journals by 217).
  • 2,400,258 articles (up 13% from 2,123,402 at the end of 2015, very impressive given the journal weeding process)
  • 128 countries (down from 136 at the end of 2016)

Electronic Journals Library

  •  55,562 journals that can be read free-of-charge (up from 51,983 at the end of 2017, a 7% growth rate)

OECD iLibrary  * (selected data points) (just added, no growth figures)

  • 11,050 e-book titles
  • 5,130 multilingual summaries
  • 5,200 working papers
  • 5 billion data points across 42 databases

    Directory of Open Access Books

    • 5,602 books (up from 3,789 at the end of 2015, a 48% growth rate)
    • 167 publishers (up from 134 at the end of 2014, 33 publishers added, a 25% growth rate)

    OpenDOAR 

    3,000 repository milestone!!!

    • 3,285 repositories (up from 2,991 at the end of 2015, a 10% growth rate)

    Registry of Open Access Repositories

    •  4,365 repositories (up from 4,147 at the end of 2015, a 5% growth rate)

    Bielefeld Academic Search Engine 

    100 million document milestone!!!
    5,000 content providers milestone!!!

    • 103,090,961 documents (up from 84.25 million at the end of 2015, a 22% growth rate)
    • 5,023 content sources (up from 3,965 at the end of 2015, a 27% growth rate)

    PubMedCentral

    4 million article milestone!!!

    •  4.1 million articles (up from 3.7 million at the end of 2015, an 11% growth rate)
    • 2,326 journals actively participating in PubMedCentral (up from 2,021 at the end of 2015, a 10% growth rate)
    • 1,720 journals with immediate free access (up from 1,553 at the end of 2015, an 11% growth rate)
    • 1,426 journals with all articles open access (up from 1,331 at the end of 2015, a 7% growth rate)
    • 569 journals with some articles open access (up from 423 at the end of 2015, a 35% growth rate)

      arXiv

      • 1,219,224 preprints (up from 1,105,906 at the end of 2015, a 10% growth rate)

      SocArXiv Preprints (launched December 7, 2016, inspired by arXiv)  **

      • 631 searchable preprints

      bioRxiv
      (in beta December 31, 2016, inspired by arXiv) ***

      • 7,500 articles (based on “all articles” search, 750 pages X 10 articles / page)

      RePEC

      2 million downloadable items milestone!!!

      • 2,021,534 downloadable items (up from 1,942,541 at the end of 2015, a 13% growth rate)

      ROARMAP

      • 803 total open access mandate policies (up from 762 at the end of 2015, a 5% growth rate)

      Internet Archive

      3 million milestones for video and audiorecordings!!!
      10 million milestone for texts (now 11 million)!!!

      • 11 million texts (up from 8.8 million at the end of 2015, a 26% growth rate

      Notes

       * OECD iLibrary statement on free-to-read (from About page):

      All book and journal content is available to all users to read online by clicking the READ icon. Read editions are optimised for browser-enabled mobile devices and can be read online wherever there is an internet connection – desktop computer, tablets or smart phones. They are also shareable and embeddable.
      The site also features content for all users to access and download such as the OECD Factbook, OECD Working Papers, Indicators, and more.
      Subscribers benefit from full access to all content in all available formats.

      ** about SocArXiv (from the Dec. 7, 2016 launch announcement):

      SocArXiv, the open access, open source archive of social science, is officially launching in beta version today. Created in partnership with the Center for Open Science, SocArXiv provides a free, noncommercial service for rapid sharing of academic papers; it is built on the Open Science Framework, a platform for researchers to upload data and code as well as research results

      *** about bioRxiv (from about page):

      bioRxiv (pronounced “bio-archive”) is a free online archive and distribution service for unpublished preprints in the life sciences. It is operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a not-for-profit research and educational institution. By posting preprints on bioRxiv, authors are able to make their findings immediately available to the scientific community and receive feedback on draft manuscripts before they are submitted to journals.

      This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series.

        Dramatic Growth of Open Access September 30, 2016

        Highlights

        There is plenty to celebrate for this year’s Open Access Week October 24 – 31 everywhere! 



        As of Oct. 6, 2016, a Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) search includes over 100 million documents! Globally the collections of open access archives are now collectively an order of magnitude larger than the 10 million articles and books claimed by Elsevier for Science Direct. Congratulations to BASE and everyone in the repositories movement that is making this happen!

        In spite of a vigorous weeding process, new get-tough inclusion policy and negative growth in the past year in journal numbers, the Directory of Open Access Journals showed an amazing 11% growth in the past year in articles searchable at the article level – about half a million more articles today than a year ago. This past quarter DOAJ showed a healthy growth rate of 135 titles or added 1.5 titles per day.

        For every journal added by DOAJ in the past quarter, another repository was added to the vetted OpenDOAR collection of repositories.

        The Internet Archive now has more than 3 million audio recordings.

        The Directory of Open Access Books added over 2 thousand titles in the past year for a current total of over 5,000 titles (60% annual growth rate) from 161 publishers (41% annual growth rate in publishers).

        The number of journals actively contributing to PubMedCentral continues to show strong growth in every measure: there are 212 more journal active participants in PMC today than a year ago, a 10% growth rate; 170 more journals provide immediate free access, an 11% growth rate; 113 more journals provide all articles as open access, a 9% growth rate; and the number of journals with some articles open access increased by 123, a 31% growth rate.

        Full data is available for download from here.

        This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series. 

        Dramatic Growth of Open Access March 31, 2016

        Highlights

        There are now 150 publishers of peer-reviewed open access books listed in the Directory of Open Access Books, publishing more than 4,400 open access books. 620 books were published in this quarter alone, a 16% increase in just this quarter. The Directory of Open Access Journals has been adding titles at a net rate of 6 titles per day, 540 journals added this quarter for a total of over 11,000 journals. This is the highest DOAJ growth rate since this series started!

        Bielefeld Academic Search Engine repositories collectively added more than 4.7 million documents this quarter for a total of just under 89 million documents.

        SCOAP3 nearly doubled in size this past year (87% annual growth) for a total of 4,690 documents. arXiv grew by over 107,000 documents to over 1.1 million documents during the same time frame. 

        Internet Archive is likely to be featured in the next issue as it is currently edging towards a milestone of 10 million free texts.

        The number of journals actively participating in PubMedCentral, making all content immediately freely accessible, and making all content open access, continues to grow. Meanwhile at PubMed a transition in indexing practice (from manual to automatic) means that a search for NIH-funded articles in the last 90 days significantly underreports results (1,402 NIH funded articles in the past 90 days compared with a range of 7,846 – 19,790 with a 90-day search limit for NIH funded article since 2008). Without the indexing, it is not possible to determine the percentage of full text. Here’s hoping the automated indexing process results in a catch-up soon; it doesn’t matter very much if the statistics for this series fall a bit behind, but people rely on this indexing to search for medical information.

        The Electronic Journals Library added 3,612 journals that can be read free-of-charge in the past year, for a total of 52,000 journals, a 7% growth rate.

        This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series. Open data can be downloaded from the Dramatic Growth of Open Access dataverse.

        Dramatic Growth of Open Access December 2015

        Highlights

        After a year or so of slower growth at DOAJ to accommodate back-end technical work and a new get-tough policy on journal inclusion, robust DOAJ growth is back on track. In the last quarter of 2015, DOAJ added a total of 384 titles or more than 4 titles per day for a year-end total of 10,963 journals. The number of articles searchable at the article level grew by over 300,000 in 2015 for a year-end total of over 2.1 million. The Bielefeld Academic Search Engine figures demonstrate the overall growth of (mostly) open access repositories, adding more than 15 million documents in 2015 for a total of more than 84 million and adding 671 content providers for a total of just under 4 thousand content providers. Both document growth and content provider growth at BASE reflects greater than 20% growth for 2015, a particularly impressive number given that percentage growth tends to favour newer, smaller initiatives such as the SCOAP3 repository which had the highest growth by percentage in 2015, more than doubling to over 8,000 articles in 2015. Although not all the documents available via a BASE search are open access, the more than 3.7 million items now available for free from PubMedCentral alone is just one indication of robust growth in open access repositories. The Internet Archive now has more than 8.8 million texts. Perhaps even more impressive is that over 8 million of the texts made available by the Internet Archive and Open Library are fully accessible and in the public domain! Following are a few charts to illustrate the ongoing amazing growth of open access. To sum up, only one resolution is recommended for all the people behind the thousands of open access journals, repositories and other services for 2016: keep up the good work!

        Open data is available through the Dramatic Growth of Open Access dataverse. For previous posts see the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series.

        Top 10 by percentage growth

        2014 2015 Annual growth (numeric) Annual growth (percentage)
        SCOAP3 articles 4,329 8,934 4,605 106%
        DOAB publishers 79 134 55 70%
        DOAB books 2,482 3,789 1,307 53%
        Highwire Completely Free Sites 113 160 47 42%
        PMC journals some articles OA 338 423 85 25%
        BASE documents 68,575,068 84,250,153 15,675,085 23%
        Internet Archive Audio Recordings 2,224,696 2,712,703 488,007 22%
        PMC journals selected articles OA 2,897 3,499 602 21%
        BASE content providers 3,294 3,965 671 20%
        Internet Archive Texts 7,320,065 8,756,735 1,436,670 20%

        Dramatic Growth of Open Access June 30, 2015

        This issue of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access highlights and celebrates samples of the many small milestones illustrating the slow and steady increase in open access (dramatic does not necessarily mean fast!).

        There are now more than 2,000 journals actively participating in PubMedCentral. Over the past year, this number grew by 178 – that’s close to one more new entire journal actively contributing content to PMC every business day.

        PMC now has over 3.5 million items. This means that about 15% of all the 24 million items cited in PMC (regardless of date of publication) have free fulltext available linked from PubMed.

        In the last 7 years, the number of NIH funded articles indexed in PubMed (again regardless of date of publication) available for free grew from 86 thousand to over 600 thousand or from 34% to 71%.
         

         
        Other small milestones: there are now over 100 publishers of open access scholarly books listed in the Directory of Open Access Books; the Social Sciences Research Network now includes over half a million full text papers; the Registry of Open Access Repositories now lists over 4,000 repositories; and the Bielefeld Academic Search Engine now has more than 75 million documents. Congratulations and thanks to everyone who is doing all the behind-the-scenes work that results in this dramatic increase in access to our knowledge (whether your initiative is highlighted this particular issue or not). To download the data go to the DGOA dataverse.

        Selected data

        Directory of Open Access Journals is going through a clean-up project; the number of journals listed decreased by 45 this semester (over the past year growth of 471 titles). Journals and articles searchable by article both grew this quarter.

        The Directory of Open Access Books lists 3,197 titles from 107 publishers; over 50% annual growth for both numbers.

        The Electronic Journals Library added 801 journals that can be read free-of-charge for a total approaching 50,000 titles.

        The Bielefeld Academic Search Engine added more than 3.6 million documents for a total over over 75 million documents.

        This quarter PubMedCentral added the following (journal rather than article data). A key point is that increases are happening consistently in every category.

        • 33 journals actively participating in PMC (total over 2,000)
        • 23 journals with immediate free access (total 1,468)
        • 24 journals with all articles open access (total 1,260)
        • 46 journals that deposit ALL content in PMC (total 1,683)
        • 9 more journals that deposit NIH-funded content only (total 310)
        • 268 journals that deposit selected content in PMC (total 3,246)

        arXiv added over 25,000 publications and now has more than a million. 

        RePEC added over 64 thousand downloadable items for a total of over 1.6 million. The Logec service has lots of great stats (downloads, content by type and by date); highly recommended for anyone looking for more detail in this area.

        Social Sciences Research Network added close to 13 thousand fulltextpapers for a total of more than half a million.

        Internet Archive added:

        • 100,000 movies for a total of over 2 million
        • 4,000 concerts for a total of 153 thousand
        • 100,000 audio recordings for a total of over 2.5 million
        • 300,000 texts for a total of over 8 millio

        This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series. Note that the dataverse has been cleaned up a little to make it easier to find the current file.

        ?2015 by Heather Morrison. Copying is an act of love. Please copy. (from Copyheart).

        Dramatic Growth of Open Access 2015 first quarter

        Data for the first quarter of 2014 (the 11th year of publication of this series) are now available in the dataverse. Error note re Dec. 31, 2014 version: the number for Electronic Journals Library was copied incorrectly (total journals mistook for free full-text journals). Noted as an error in the current version, will result in under-reporting of growth of this initiative in the near future.

        Highlights

        OpenDOAR added 129 repositories for a total of 2,857. The Bielefeld Academic Search Engine added close to 3 million documents for a total of over 71 million documents. Another 7,690 authors joined the Social Sciences Research Network for a total of over 275,000 authors.

        Internet Archive added 1.7 million texts for 7.8 million.

        The Directory of Open Access Journals, in spite of vigorous weeding and re-organizing over the past year or so, is back to showing consistent strong growth, adding 254 titles this quarter for slightly under 3 titles per day. Over the past year, the growth in articles that can be retrieved through a DOAJ article-level search grew by over a quarter of a million articles for a total of over 1.8 million articles! 20 more publishers joined the Directory of Open Access Books – as of today, DOAB includes 100 publishers.  Highwire Press added 9 completely free sites this quarter. The number of journals with immediate free access in PubMedCentral increased by 43 to a total of 1,443.

        Congratulations and thanks to all of the people and organizations working hard to make open access happen. This is a major step for every author signing up for a repository, every journal moving to immediate free. I wish I had the time to thank and celebrate each of your accomplishments individually.

        This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series.

        2014 Dramatic Growth of Open Access: 30 indicators of growth beyond the ordinary

        There has been a remarkably constant growth rate of scholarly journals since the 1600’s (De Solla Price, 1963, p. 17). Mabe (2003) calculates the average annual scholarly journal growth rate at 3.46% per year from the 1600’s to the present day, with an increase to 4.35% from 1946 to 1976 and subsequent fall to 3.26% after 1976.
        This issue of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access highlights 30 indicators of open access growth that are beyond this background growth of scholarly works – in many cases far beyond, with a range of percentage growth from 5 – 89%. In some cases, high percentage growth reflects early start-ups (low starting figures), but in other cases there are very high growth rates on resources that were very, very large to begin with (these are the highlighted numbers below). Note that some numbers are rounded for ease of understanding; if precise numbers are required, please download the full dataset from the DGOA dataverse.

        A special congratulations is in order to arXiv for recently surpassing the milestone of over 1 million documents. Note that these 30 indicators likely underestimate the growth of open access beyond the ordinary by a large factor, as this series focuses on just a few indicators of macro level growth of open access. To continue the momentum in 2015 open access advocates are encouraged to remember the vision of open access as unprecedented public good and not get caught up in the minutiae of implementation. Although the focus of this series is the numbers, a special mention to an exceptional open access policy recently announced by India’s departments of Biotechnology and Science and Technology which represents a new model OA policy for the whole world.

        Open access indicators with percentage growth above the 3.5% background growth of scholarly works in 2014

        • 89% growth – over 38,000 more journals that are free-to-read: the libraries collaborating on the Electronic Journals Library service added 38,865 journals that are free-to-read in 2014 for a total of 82,363 journals that can be read free of charge. This figure encompasses not only the fully open access, peer-reviewed journals included in DOAJ, but also the many journals that are free to read after an embargo period or that are of interest in an academic context without necessarily being peer reviewed. 
        • the Directory of Open Access Books was hopping in 2014, adding:
          •  863 books for a total of 2,482 (53% growth) 
          • 25 publishers for a total of 79 (46% growth).
        • the Internet Archive added:
          • 1.7 million texts (29% growth) for a total of 7.3 million texts
          • 107,000 movies (23% growth) for a total of 1.7 million movies
          • 400,000 audio recordings (22% growth) for a total of over 2.2 million concerts
          • 61 billion webpages (16% growth) for a total of 435 billion webpages
          • 12,000 concerts (10% growth) for a total of over 100,000 concerts
        • Highwire Press added:
          •  24 completely free sites for a total of 113 completely free sites, a 27% percentage increase 
          • close to 160,000 free articles (7% growth) for a total of close to 2.4 million 
          • 13 sites with free back issues (5% growth) for a total of 280 sites
        • the Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) service added:
          • 12 million documents (21% growth) for a total of 68 million documents
          • 500 content providers (18% growth) for a total of over 3,000 content providers
        • PubMedCentral added
          • 483 journals (20% growth) that deposit selected articles for a total of  2,897 journals
          • 214 journals (18% growth) with immediate free access for a total of 1,402 journals
          • 180 journals (18% growth) with all articles open access for a total of 1,201 journals
          • 51 journals (18% growth) with some articles open access for a total of 338 journals
          • 224 full participation journals (16% growth) (all articles added to PMC) for a total of 1,618 journals
          • 250 actively participating journals (15% growth) for a total of 1,904 journals
          • 400,000 items (14% growth) for a total of 3.3 million items
          • 26 journals that deposit NIH-funded articles (10% growth) for a total of 299 journals 
        • DOAJ added:
          •  240,000 articles searchable at article level (15% growth) for a total of 1.8 million articles 
          • 12 countries (10% growth) for a total of 136 countries
          • close to 400 journals (7% growth) searchable at article level for a total of over 6 thousand journals
        • RePEC added 50,000 downloadable items (14% growth) for a total of 1.5 million items
        • Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN) added:
          • 55,000 fulltext papers (13% growth) for a total of 483,000 papers
          • close to 60 thousand abstracts (11% growth) for a total of close to 600 thousand abstracts
          • 27 thousand authors (11% growth) for a total of close to 270 thousand author
        • arXiv added close to 100,000 documents (11% growth) for a total of over a million documents
        • OpenDOAR added 175 repositories (7% growth) for a total of 2,729

        For full data, see the Dramatic Growth of Open Access Dataverse: http://dataverse.scholarsportal.info/dvn/dv/dgoa

        A call to remember the vision of open access in 2015

        As open access moves further and further from idea to reality, it’s all too easy to get caught up in the minutiae of implementation: the procedures of developing open access archives, journals, books and other works and the development of the technology and services to make it happen, and to make the works attractive to use. In the process of developing OA initiatives, it may well be useful to develop and implement a variety of standards, new metrics and technical procedures. But in the process let’s not confuse the means with the ends – let’s keep our rationality rational (Morrison, 2012) and focused on the goals that we really want to achieve.

        To further grow the momentum in 2015, let’s remember the great vision of open access, as expressed in the first paragraph of the 2002 Budapest Open Access Initiative:

        An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge.

        Special acknowledgement of a new leading-edge open access policy

        The recently announced new open access policy of two of India’s science departments represents the best of funding agency open access policy to date and includes important advances. There is a focus on green or open access archives and a call to develop the institutional repository system to implement the policy. This will ensure that the results of research funded by India remains open access and remains available to Indians – there is no substitute in OA policy for ensuring local control. The maximum embargoes are six months in the sciences and one year in the humanities and social sciences. The major advance is inclusion of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment instructing evaluators not to consider impact factor or other metrics in assessing the work of researchers, but rather focus on the quality of the work per se. This is an absolutely critical step in addressing the systemic dysfunction in the scholarly communication system I have described elsewhere (Morrison, 2012), facilitating a shift to rational rationality, a system that is free to prioritize the advancement of scholarly knowledge, the knowledge commons, rather than the imperfect measures people have devised as heuristic devices.

        References

        Mabe, M. (2003). The growth and number of journals. Serials, 16(2), 191-197. Retrieved August 27, 2011 from http://uksg.metapress.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,16,24;journal,26,72;linkingpublicationresults,1:107730,1

        Morrison, H. (2012). Freedom for scholarship in the internet age.  Doctoral dissertation, Simon Fraser University, Department of Communication. The second chapter discusses the theme of irrational rationality, drawing from the work begun by Weber. This is also called instrumental rationality, and in brief is our tendency to develop tools, techniques and measures to help us achieve our goals, only to become slaves to the measures.

        Price, D. J. d. S. (1963). Little science, big science. New York: Columbia University Press.

        This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series

        Dramatic Growth of Open Access September 30, 2014: some useful numbers for open access week

        This edition of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access (DGOA) features a few numbers and facts that might be useful for forthcoming Open Access Week celebrations and presentations. The post starts off with a few really quick illustrations of the growth of open access, followed by detail and some answers to frequently asked questions. DGOA aims at only the most macro level indicators of growth and each post does not link to other major studies in this area. Readers are invited to add key links and details in the comments, only with comments, questions on DGOA itself. Open data is available for download through the Dramatic Growth of Open Access Dataverse (hint: if you’d like to make your own pretty charts I recommend the show growth edition). With Canadian thanksgiving around the corner, I would like to say a hearty thank you to everyone around the world who is doing all the hard work to make this happen!!!

        Quick facts about open access status and growth

        There are more than 10,000 fully open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journals in the world, about a third of all peer-reviewed journals. These journals are published in more than 100 countries, and contain over 1.7 million articles. (Details: DOAJ).

        There are close to 50,000 free-to-read journals of academic interest (including fully open peer reviewed journals, journals with free back issues, and journals of academic interest that are not peer-reviewed). (Details: DOAJ section / Electronic Journals Library).

        Open access monographs is an area experiencing rapid growth, an annual growth rate of over 40% for both books and publishers. Currently there are over 2,200 open access books from over 70 publishers (Details: DOAB).

        There are over 2,700 open access repositories (details OpenDOAR) containing approximately 64 million documents of various types (details BASE – note that not all items are open access).

        PubMedCentral has more than 3.2 million free fulltext documents. There is substantial annual growth in journal PMC participation, including the number of journals actively participating in PMC, the number of journals providing immediate free access, and the number of journals providing open access to all articles. 

        arXiv is approaching one million free documents and an annual growth rate of 11%.

        RePEC has about 1.5 million downloadable items.

        The Social Sciences Research Network has close to 500,000 items and an annual growth rate of 13%.

        There are close to 500 open access policies, an area growing at a rate of 16% annually (details: ROARMAP).

        The Internet Archive includes over 430 billion web pages and 6.5 million texts, to name just a couple of items, and in spite of its huge size the growth rates for all types of works continue to be absolutely amazing.

        Details

        DOAJ: over 10,000 journals from 135 countries, over 1.7 million searchable articles.This is roughly one third of the world’s scholarly journals.

        The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) lists over 10,000 fully open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journals. Over the past year DOAJ has been undergoing some major and much-needed renovations (technical and getting tough about journal inclusion). For this reason, DOAJ journal growth numbers would be misleading at the present time, for two reasons a) comparing apples to oranges, a more inclusive list with a list with more stringent criteria for inclusion; and b) DOAJ is likely behind on adding new journals due to this work. For example, the Sustaining the Knowledge Commons team’s open access article processing charges project has found that the DOAJ titles listed as of May 2014 do not closely match the list of titles found on OA publisher sites, with the OA publisher title lists tending to be under-represented in DOAJ. Over the coming year, watch for DOAJ to begin to catch up.

        DOAJ’s stringent inclusion criteria (immediate OA, peer-review, minimum number of articles published) results in an understatement of the works of academic interest that are free-to-read. The Electronic Journals Library‘s  over 46,000 free-to-read journals is the best estimate I’m aware of of the free-to-read category. (Close to 50,000 free-to-read journals would be a reasonable estimate, as the EJL added about over 4,000 journals over the past year).

        DOAB: over 2,200 open access books from 70 publishers, annual growth rate over 40%
        The Directory of Open Access Books currently lists 2,261 books from 77 publishers. The over 40% annual growth rate applies to both books and publishers. Note that as a relatively new service high percentage rates are relatively easy to achieve (lower starting figures).

        OpenDOAR: 2,700 repositories
        The Directory of Open Access Repositories lists 2,729 repositories, an 11% increase (277 repositories) over the past year. Another way to express this trend, at least in some regions like Canada: having an open access repository is rapidly becoming the norm, an essential service for a university or a research institution.

        Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE): over 64 million documents from over 3,000 content providers. Over the past year BASE grew by over 14 million documents for a growth rate of 29%.
        Bielefeld Academic Search Engine is the service that I use for the best guesstimate of how much content is available through all of those open access repositories. This number is far from perfect as not all items in all of the repositories are open access, there could be duplication, and there is a wide range of content types. However, BASE is the best number I have found to indicate the broader growth of open access including all of these content types and even the freely available metadata; and, if only a very small portion of BASE’s growth were due to peer-reviewed journal articles becoming open access, that would still be highly significant. For example, if all of the world’s approximately 1.5 million peer reviewed articles produced yearly became OA through a repository over the past year, that would only account for 10% of BASE’s 14 million document growth.

        Highwire Free includes over 2.3 million free articles, and 109 completely free sites.

        PubMedCentral: over 3.2 million free fulltext, 14% increase over past year. 1,890 (close to 2,000) journals actively participating in PMC, a 15% jump from last year.  20% increase in journals offering immediate free access (1,358 journals) and 17% increase in journals with all articles open access (1,163).
        PubMedCentral: PubMed now links to over 3.2 million free fulltext items, an increase of about 400,000 over the past year for an annual growth rate of 14%. There was a 15% growth of journals actively participating in PubMedCentral, up 243 over the past year for a current total of 1,890 (close to 2,000 would be a reasonable ballpark figure to quote). The number of journals in PMC offering immediate free access increased by 20% to a total of 1,358 and the number of journals in PMC with all articles open access increased by 17% for a total of 1,163.  

        arXiv is approaching 1 million items (974,813), annual growth rate 11%.

        RePEC has about 1.5 million downloadable items. Growth rates not available due to a combination of changes at RePEC and my rather substantial error in calculating RePEC numbers in June.

        The Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN) has 469,960 full text papers (close to 500,00) and an annual growth rate of 13%.  

        The Registry of Open Access Material Archiving Policies (ROARMAP) lists 483 open access policies (close to 500), an increase of 16% in the past year.  

        The Internet Archive continues to be the exception to the rule that new, smaller initiatives have an easier time demonstrating high growth rates. The Internet Archive currently includes over 430 billion web pages (20% annual increase), 1.7 million videos (25% annual increase), 133,000 concerts (10% annual increase), 2 million audio recordings (23% increase) and 6.5 million texts (29% annual increase).

        For full details and downloadable data, please see the Dramatic Growth of Open Access dataverse.

        Previous posts in the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series can be found here

        Comments on this post, data corrections, and links to other studies on the growth of open access (or if you’re making use of the open data, links to your results) are welcome and appreciated in the comments section. Please note that this is a scholarly blog; comments should be signed and relevant interests, if any, noted.

        Dramatic Growth of Open Access June 30, 2014

        The June 30, 2014 Dramatic Growth of Open Access celebrates the milestone of more than half a million articles funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health that are now freely accessible! After 3 years, the percentage of items found through a PubMed search funded by NIH rises to 71% (for NIH staff), 66% for NIH external funded research, and 31% for any article regardless of funding. At first glance, this looks a lot like evidence suggesting the NIH Public Access Policy is very effective, more than doubling the percentage of items freely available! Thanks to Jihane Salhab from the Sustaining the Knowledge Commons team for the charts, data gathering and analysis of PMC Free this quarter.

        Research Support, N.I.H. Extramural + Intramural

        Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt]

         Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt]

        No Limits (No distinction based on researcher)

        The Dramatic Growth of Open Access Series is a quarterly series (end of March, June, September, and December) of key data illustrating the growth of open access, with additional comments and analysis. The series is available in open data and blogpost (commentary) editions. The quarterly series began December 31, 2005, and is predated by a peer-reviewed journal article featuring data as of February 2005. To download the data or the rationale & method, see the Dramatic Growth of Open Access dataverse. Morrison, Heather, 2014-03, “Dramatic Growth of Open Access”, http://hdl.handle.net/10864/10660 Morrison, Heather [Distributor] V1 [Version].  The rationale and method has not been updated; March 31 is the latest. If you are using the June 30, 2014 PMC Free data, please Morrison, Heather and Salhab, Jihane.

        More highlights this quarter

        By the numbers, it’s usually the large, well-established and much used services that tend to impress. This quarter, the Bielefeld Academic Search Engine added 140 content providers and over 2 million documents for a total of over 3,000 content providers (illustrating the growth of the repository movement) and 62 million items (illustrating the growth of self-archiving). The Internet Archive gathered another 14 billion webpages for a total of 416 billion. The Electronic Journals library added another 958 journals that can be read free-of-charge for a total of over 45 thousand free journals. PubMedCentral added about 100 thousand free articles, for a total of over 3 million, and the number of journals actively contributing to PMC that now provide immediate free access grew by 63 to a total of 1,315. Searchable article growth in DOAJ was 75,000, bringing the total number of articles searchable by article in DOAJ to over 1.6 million.

        By percentage growth, it’s the newest services starting off with nothing that have the greatest ability to impress. SCOAP3, the high energy physics full flip to open access global collaboration, started this January and nearly doubled the article count this quarter, to a total of over 2,000 articles. The Directory of Open Access Books added 6 publishers and 175 books for a total of 68 publishers and over 200 books.

        Highwire Press added 8 completely free sites, for a total of 107 completely free sites, 8% growth this quarter (annual equivalent 32%).

        Items of interest since March 31, 2014

        • June 4: the home page for Peter Suber’s MIT Press book Open Access passed the milestone of 100,000 page views (I highly recommend this as an excellent brief starting point for learning about OA).

        This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access series.