Open Access is the principle of free access to scientific literature. Both the Swiss National Science Foundation and Swissuniversities are increasingly promoting Open Access. With this, the question arises, as to whether university employees may be obliged to publish Open Access. The authors describe in a first step, how this issue has been addressed in other countries, and then consider a possible implementation in Switzerland.
Authors: Muller, Floriane Sophie; Iriarte, Pablo. Presented at: 15th Interlending and Document Supply Conference (ILDS). Paris – 04-06 October – . 2017
Abstract: “The University of Geneva library has seen, like others around the world, a slight but steady decrease in its document delivery service usage for a few years now and this decline also seems to affect the use of the electronic licensed collection. Indeed, 2016 was the first year where usage of licensed journals decreased. How could it be correlated with other actual trends, such as an ever growing open access corpus and an increased visibility of shadow libraries like Sci-Hub? To what resources and services, beside the offer of the library, can our scholars turn when they need an article? In this work we try to reveal and understand the mechanisms that operate behind this gradual disengagement of scholars in our library services. Working a reverse way, we checked in WoS all the papers published in 2015 and 2016 by authors affiliated in Geneva University STM faculties (3’833 and 3’989 articles respectively). Then we extracted all the references cited in those papers (364’445 references, 80% having DOIs) and enriched them with more identifiers, bibliographic data and access information, using bibliographic APIs from CrossRef, NLM, DOAJ and oaDOI for the Open Access corpus, and open data sets from Dryad, figshare and Zenodo for Sci-Hub data. Finally we confronted this cited information to our ILL/DD orders and licensed journals database. This deep comparison gives us a much more informed insight into our scholars’ practices and allows us to measure the impact of piracy and Open Access growth on the academic library services.”
From Google’s English: “The Parliamentary Group on Digital Sustainability (Parldigi) is committed to the sustainable and innovative use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and calls for unrestricted public access to knowledge….The open access strategies of the universities serve not only to science, but also to the general public, and enable access and the long-term preservation of knowledge. However, Open Access can only be implemented in a targeted manner if (scientific) works can actually be published freely accessible. The Swiss Code of Obligations (OR) provides that the rights of the copyright holder are only transferred to the publisher for as long as it is necessary for the execution of the publishing contract (Article 381 para 1 OR). However, this provision may be amended by contract. As a rule, the publishers make use of this possibility by transferring copyrights in standard contracts or general terms and conditions (GTC) in full. In order to prevent this in the future and thus ensure that scientific publications can be made freely accessible to the interested public, a new, compelling provision is to be introduced in the framework of the revision of the URG. Concretely, we propose to supplement Art. 381 OR with the following paragraph:
Art. 381 para. 2 OR (new):
The right to make a publicly funded contribution for a scientific journal or a scientific collection free of charge may be made available to the publisher. …”
“Are you a skilled repository librarian, with a profound knowledge of scholarly communication, who likes to work in a dynamic environment to ensure open access to scientific results? Then you can apply your skills to improve the user experience by enriching the material made available to the community via platforms such as Inspire and the CERN Document Server (CDS). Our service helps 50,000 scientists, mainly within the field of high-energy physics, worldwide every day to find information across a million of scientific articles, seamlessly populate their scientific profile and explore connections between ideas through our graph of tens of million citations. CERN, Take part! …”
“Being able to reproduce scientific results was a key issue at the congress, and often relates back to the problem of time pressure, as scientists have an incentive to publish results that appear most interesting as soon as possible.
But attendees agreed that, while there often seem to be too many papers published in journals, there are still important phenomena – even negative results or failed experiments – that should be shared instead of thrown in the trash.
Better infrastructure for sharing such results, as well as open access data and publications, was also called for. According to [Marcel] Tanner, SCNAT [Swiss Academy of Natural Sciences] is already working with the Swiss Science and Innovation Council and the Swiss National Science Foundation to manage open access in Switzerland, where about 40% of publications produced with public funding are freely available….”
“The Open Source Award 2016 is to honour companies, authorities, developers or individuals who use and disseminate Open Source software. The Swiss Open Systems User Group announced recently that applications are now open for Open Data projects as well. This will build synergies among Open Source communities operating globally. The call for applications is open until the 8th of July 2016 and all applications will be published in September. The winner will be announced during the Open Source Business Forum in Bern on 26 October….”
“The THOR project is financed by the European Commission H2020 program. It focuses on the Technical and Human Infrastructure for Open Research. It started in June 2015 and will run through November 2017. It is a cooperation of CERN, the British Library, ORCID, DateCite, Dryad, EMBL-EBI, PANGAEA, Australian National Data Service (ANDS), PLoS and Elsevier.
THOR builds on the DataCite and ORCID initiatives to uniquely identify scholarly artefacts (beyond articles: such as data and software) and attribute them to researchers through `persistent identifiers’. THOR project partners aim to support Open Science by facilitating, discovery and re-use of scientific artefacts, and deploy enhanced metrics to assess their impact. THOR partners design and deploy services both in general, across the ORCID and DataCite infrastructures, and in partnership with data repositories and emerging publishers’ solutions as well as concrete examples in High-Energy Physics (at CERN), Humanities and Social Sciences, Life Sciences and Geosciences….
The successful candidate will join the team working on Open Science services for the High-Energy Physics community, including the CERN Open Data portal (link is external), INSPIRE (link is external) and HEPData (link is external). In collaboration with all THOR partners, the successful candidate will participate to the design and delivery of services to uniquely identify scholarly artefacts in the field (such as data, but also software) across several platforms through persistent identifiers, and attribute them uniquely to researchers by using the ORCID services. The successful candidate will collaborate with the entire international and multidisciplinary THOR team and contribute to R&D for interoperability solution across scientific communities….”
“Preprints is a multidisciplinary preprint platform that makes scientific manuscripts from all fields of research immediately available at www.preprints.org. Preprints is a free (not-for-profit) open access service supported by MDPI in Basel, Switzerland….All posted preprints are immediately citable by their assigned digital object identifier (DOI). Preprints encourages authors to post updates of their working manuscript as research progresses….”
Abstract: The aim of this study was to establish the role of academic libraries in the context of open access (OA) journal publishing, based on the perceived needs of the journals and/or their editors. As a study sample, 14 OA journals affiliated to the University of Zürich, Switzerland, were taken. They were very different in nature, ranging from well-established society journals to newly founded titles launched by dedicated individuals. The study comprised two approaches: a comprehensive journal assessment and subsequent editor interviews. The journal assessments evaluated the functionalities, ease of use, sustainability and visibility of the journal. The interviews were used to get additional background information about the journals and explore editors’ needs, experiences and viewpoints. The results show that journals affiliated to publishing houses or libraries are technically well provided for. Unaffiliated journals offer fewer functionalities and display some unconventional features, often described as innovations by the editors. More resources – financial or human – is seen by nearly all editors as the most pressing need and as a limitation to growth. In comparison, IT/technical needs are mentioned much less often. The article also describes the launch of an Editors’ Forum, an idea suggested by the editors and implemented by the library. This Forum offered further valuable insight into the potential role of libraries, but also specifically addressed several of the editors’ needs as expressed in the interviews.