Explainer: What will the new EU copyright rules change for Europe’s Cultural Heritage Institutions | Europeana Pro

“On 17 May 2019 the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. Member States have until the 7 June 2021 to implement the new rules into national law.  In this explainer, Paul Keller, Policy Advisor to Europeana Foundation breaks down the changes these new rules bring to Europe’s Cultural Heritiage insitutions. …

Article 14 of the directive clarifies a fundamental principle of EU copyright law. The article makes it clear that “when the term of protection of a work of visual art has expired, any material resulting from an act of reproduction of that work is not subject to copyright or related rights, unless the material resulting from that act of reproduction is original”. In other words, the directive establishes that museums and other cultural heritage institutions can no longer claim copyright over (digital) reproductions of public domain works in their collections. In doing so the article settles an issue that has sparked quite some controversy in the the cultural heritage sector in the past few year and aligns the EU copyright rules with the principles expressed in Europeana’s Public Domain Charter….

Finally the DSM directive introduces not one but two new Text and Data Mining exceptions (Articles 3 & 4) that will need to be implemented by all Member States. The first exception (Article 3) allows “research organisations and cultural heritage institutions” to make extractions and reproductions of copyright protected works to which they have lawful access “in order to carry out, for the purposes of scientific research, Text and Data Mining”. Under this exception cultural heritage institutions can text and data mine all works that the have in their collections (or to which they have lawful access via other means) as long as this happens for the purpose of scientific research. 

The second exception (Article 4) is not limited to Text and Data Mining for the purpose of scientific research. Instead it allows anyone (including cultural heritage institutions) to make reproductions or extractions of works to which they have lawful access for Text and Data Mining regardless of the underlying purpose. …”

Open access image repositories: high-quality data to enable machine learning research – ScienceDirect

“Highlights

 

• Machine learning algorithms have shown promising results but the number of clinically successful AI products is limited.
• Access to appropriate data for training, testing and evaluation is a key limitation to the field.
• Open access repositories are a vital source of quality data needed for training and testing machine learning algorithms….”

 

Images of Works of Art in Museum Collections: The Experience of Open Access: A Study of 11 Museums

“No museum that has made the transition to open access for the images in its collection would return to its previous approach. Although challenges are still being resolved, such as the additional workload and the potential uncertainty about where images of works from their collections have been published, museum staff cited the satisfaction that comes from fulfillment of the museum’s mission as a tremendous positive. Most institutions are experiencing greater internal (and in the case of the Yale museums, university-wide) collaboration than in the past between museum departments and attribute this in part to their move to open access….”

The Scientific Paper Is Obsolete. Here’s What’s Next. – The Atlantic

“Perhaps the paper itself is to blame. Scientific methods evolve now at the speed of software; the skill most in demand among physicists, biologists, chemists, geologists, even anthropologists and research psychologists, is facility with programming languages and “data science” packages. And yet the basic means of communicating scientific results hasn’t changed for 400 years. Papers may be posted online, but they’re still text and pictures on a page.

What would you get if you designed the scientific paper from scratch today? …

Software is a dynamic medium; paper isn’t. When you think in those terms it does seem strange that research like Strogatz’s, the study of dynamical systems, is so often being shared on paper …

I spoke to Theodore Gray, who has since left Wolfram Research to become a full-time writer. He said that his work on the notebook was in part motivated by the feeling, well formed already by the early 1990s, “that obviously all scientific communication, all technical papers that involve any sort of data or mathematics or modeling or graphs or plots or anything like that, obviously don’t belong on paper. That was just completely obvious in, let’s say, 1990,” he said. …”

 

 

Digital landform reconstruction using old and recent open access digital aerial photos – ScienceDirect

Abstract:  Technological progress in remote sensing has enabled digital representation of terrain through new techniques (e.g. digital photogrammetry) and instruments (e.g. 3D laser scanners). However, the use of old aerial images remains important in geosciences to reconstruct past landforms and detect long-term topographic changes. Administrations have recently expressed growing interest in sharing photogrammetric datasets on public repositories, providing opportunities to exploit these resources and detect natural and anthropogenic topographic changes. The SfM-MVS photogrammetric technique was applied to scanned historical black and white aerial photos of the Serra de Fontcalent (Alicante, Spain), as well as to recent high-quality digital aerial photos. Ground control points (GCPs) extracted from a LiDAR-derived three-dimensional point cloud were used to georeference the results with non-linear deformations. Two point clouds obtained with SfM-MVS were compared with the LiDAR-derived reference point cloud. Based on the result, the quality of the models was analysed through the comparison of the stages on stable areas, i.e., lands where no variations were detected, and active areas, with quarries, new infrastructures, fillings, excavations or new buildings. This study also indicates that errors are higher for old aerial photos (up to 5?m on average) than recent digital photos (up to 0.5?m). The application of SfM-MVS to open access data generated 3D models that enhance the geomorphological analysis, compared to stereophotogrammetry, and effectively detected activities in quarries and building of landfills.

‘Historical Google Earth’ project captures a changing Britain | Culture | The Guardian

A “historical Google Earth” featuring aerial photographs of Britain going back to 1945 has been made freely available by Cambridge University.

The vast archive captures 70 years of change across urban and rural landscapes, from the bomb-scarred postwar period to the emergence of motorways and skyscrapers.

The aerial photographs, showing Britain from the air from the 1940s up to 2009, were taken by former wartime RAF pilots at the instruction of the Cambridge archaeologist Kenneth St Joseph.

The first 1,500 photographs, covering almost every corner of the UK, were published on Friday, the first batch from an archive of almost 500,000….”

Social Sciences and Humanities: VisualMedia: a service for sharing and visualizing visual media files on the web | eoscpilot.eu

“Visual aspects are of paramount importance for Cultural Heritage (CH) research, and 3D models are also playing an important role in CH research and management.

The science demonstrator provides researchers with a system to publish on the web, visualize and analyze images and 3D models in a common workspace, enabling sharing, interoperability and reuse….”

The Cleveland Museum of Art Advances Open Access Movement | Cleveland Museum of Art

“The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA) announced today it is using Open Access to make high-resolution digital images and collections data freely available by means of the internet. Open Access means the public now has the ability to share, remix, and reuse images of as many as 30,000 CMA artworks that are in the public domain for commercial as well as scholarly and noncommercial purposes. Additional information on more than 61,000 artworks —both those in the public domain and those with copyright or other restrictions—is also now available. …”

Introducing Open Access at the CMA: For the Benefit of All the People Forever

“Beginning immediately, as many as 30,000 images of public-domain artworks in the Cleveland Museum of Art’s (CMA) collection will be available to all as part of our Open Access program. In addition, metadata relevant to more than 61,000 works are available without restriction, whether the works themselves are in the public domain or under copyright. To make this initiative feasible, the museum has partnered with Creative Commons Zero (CC0), a global nonprofit organization that makes possible the sharing and reuse of creativity and knowledge….”

Introducing Open Access at the CMA: For the Benefit of All the People Forever

Beginning immediately, as many as 30,000 images of public-domain artworks in the Cleveland Museum of Art’s (CMA) collection will be available to all as part of our Open Access program. In addition, metadata relevant to more than 61,000 works are available without restriction, whether the works themselves are in the public domain or under copyright. To make this initiative feasible, the museum has partnered with Creative Commons Zero (CC0), a global nonprofit organization that makes possible the sharing and reuse of creativity and knowledge….”