“The first human genome was sequenced in 2001 at a cost of $3 billion. Today, human genome sequencing costs less than $1000, and in a few years the price will drop below $100. Thus, personal genome sequencing will soon be widely adopted as it enables better diagnosis, disease prevention, and personalized therapies. Furthermore, if genomic data is shared with researchers, the causes of many diseases will be identified and new drugs developed. These opportunities are creating a genomic data market worth billions of dollars….The Nebula peer-to-peer network will enable data buyers to acquire genomic data directly from data owners without middlemen. This will enable data owners to receive sequencing subsidies from data buyers and profit from sharing their data….”
“Nebula Genomics will have its own coin and go head to head with Ancestry.com and Google-backed 23andMe. George Church, a professor at Harvard and MIT, is taking a different tack than his genetics testing rivals. He’s developed a token-fueled system on the blockchain that monetizes DNA to incentivize members to participate in genome sequencing. It keeps personal DNA data in the hands of the individual — not big pharma — letting them choose if they want to share and monetize that data for research purposes….Based on Professor Church’s research, no other human genomics company even comes close to delivering on what Nebula Genomics can do….Professor Chruch points to open protocol that gives scientists the ability to “aggregate standardized data” across people and databases. It’s unclear whether he plans on launching an upcoming ICO.”
“Gideon Greenspan, the founder of Coin Science, another London-based blockchain technology company, says Scienceroot and Pluto are both elements of the same “universe.”. The company is planning to provide an open-source, decentralized platform dubbed Multichain. Researchers could use the platform to upload data to the publicly shared digital ledger which won’t be controlled by any individual or group.
Greenspan opposes blockchain projects of Scienceroot and Pluto as it can get very costly to record and maintain all data in the long run. According to Greenspan, recording research data can be even more expensive than cryptocurrencies as it produces more data than virtual currencies….”
“According to National Science Foundation, 4000 new papers are published within the scientific community every day and the number of annual publications has increased from 1 million in 2000 to more than 2 million in 2013. On the other hand, the publication fees are skyrocketing in the past few decades… wasting of research resources and leading to ineffective communications.
PLUTO a nonprofit based in Seoul, Korea wants to address this issue by creating a Decentralized scholarly communication platform which makes the scholarly communication reasonable and transparent for the scientific community.
Q. Can you tell us about your founding team members and what inspired you to build Pluto Network?
We’re attaching a separate document describing the founding members. We gathered to develop applications using blockchain technology as we were fascinated with the emerging technology and the consequences it would enable. As most of us are graduates from POSTECH, a research-focused science, and technology university in South Korea, it wasn’t long until our concerns on the implementation of the technology concluded that we must integrate it with Scholarly Communication….”
Abstract: This Article outlines a blockchain based system to solve the orphan works problem. Orphan works are works still ostensibly protected by copyright for which an author cannot be found. Orphan works represent a significant problem for the efficient dissemination of knowledge, since users cannot license the works, and as a result may choose not to use them. Our proposal uses a blockchain to register attempts to find the authors of orphan works, and otherwise to facilitate use of those works. There are three elements to our proposal. First, we propose a number of mechanisms, included automated systems, to perform a diligent search for a rights holder. Second, we propose a blockchain register where every search for a work’s owner can be recorded. Third, we propose a legal mechanism that delivers works into orphanhood, and affords a right to use those works after a search for a rights holder is deemed diligent. These changes would provide any user of an orphan work with an assurance that they were acting legally as long as they had consulted the register and/or performed a diligent search for the work’s owner. The Article demonstrates a range of complementary legal and technological architectures that, in various formations, can be deployed to address the orphan works problem. We show that these technological systems are useful for enhancement of the public domain more generally, through the existence of a growing registry of gray status works and clarified conditions for their use. The selection and design of any particular implementation is a choice for policy makers and technologists. Rather than specify how that choice should look, the goal here is to demonstrate the utility of the technology and to clarify and promote its role in reforming this vexed area of law.
“PLUTO, just as all the academics around the world would do, craves to solve these absurdities, by creating a fair, transparent, reasonable, and efficient communication platform for scholars, decentralized from the present too much power of publishers. Using blockchain technology, PLUTO decentralizes the way academics share, evaluate, and reuse their research outputs. The scope of these outputs is extended beyond the present narrow definition confined to published papers to a broader sense of various information occurring midresearch. The values arising in the cycle of the system, both in financial and reputational terms, are credited rightfully to the ones who contribute to them. The reputational compensations, in the long-term, will work as an alternative metric for academics. By creating a decentralized, transparent, and reasonable system of records for academic activities, PLUTO makes the global scholarly communication efficient than ever. The whole cost savings will be greater than 80 billion USD throughout entire research industry. Besides being efficient, the paradigm of scholarly communication shifts with PLUTO. As all kinds of mid-research outputs are empowered and promoted to be shared, the lifetime value of researches will be fully utilized, making the number of digits for current global R&D industry at more than 2 trillion USD outdated. Along with the practice of validating researches, the alternative, objective performance indicator for researches, and a new system for allocating resources, there will be extraordinary advances in current challenges like incurable diseases or sustainable energy. Ultimately, the decentralized academia initiated by PLUTO will advance the way the knowledge of humanity itself advances. …”
“”Scholarly Communication is a circulating system where academic contents are created, evaluated, shared, and reused. PLUTO makes a decentralized platform by putting this process onto blockchains….Through PLUTO, research achievements are totally owned and managed by original authors, not publishers….Researchers independently creates, evaluates, and disseminates the contents, without third party involvement….PLUTO eliminates possibility of any fabrication, manipulation, or fraud in scholarly communications….”
“The web is awash with uncredited images. The tech startup Mediachain Labs is hoping to get photographers the credit they’re due.
They’ve done this by ingesting a trove of images with Creative Commons licenses from over 30 image sharing platforms such as Flickr, along with the attribution found on those platforms. It then used neural network-powered content identification technology to de-duplicate over 400 million images, leaving it with a base of 125 million photos.”
“Until now, no appropriate technical solution for longterm digital archiving, open access and open evaluation of scholarly content could emerge outside of a niche. This paper presents and describes the concept of a decentralized online platform called PEvO . Pevo gives the possibility for an interactive, 1 free and unrestricted archive of human knowledge which is accessible worldwide and digitally preserved. The novelties of this approach are based on the use of blockchain technology, namely the Steem blockchain.”