Abstract: Standardization both reflects and facilitates the collaborative and networked approach to metadata creation within the fields of librarianship and archival studies. These standards—such as Resource Description and Access and Rules for Archival Description—and the theoretical frameworks they embody enable professionals to work more effectively together. Yet such guidelines also determine who is qualified to undertake the work of cataloging and processing in libraries and archives. Both fields are empathetic to facilitating user-generated metadata and have taken steps towards collaborating with their research communities (as illustrated, for example, by social tagging and folksonomies) but these initial experiments cannot yet be regarded as widely adopted and radically open and social. This paper explores the recent histories of descriptive work in libraries and archives and the challenges involved in departing from deeply established models of metadata creation.
[In French, with an English abstract.]
Abstract: Instead of outsource tasks to providers in cheap labour countries, libraries increasingly appeal to online crowds, making relationship with their users more collaborative. The PhD begins with a conceptual chapter on the consequences of this new economic model on society and on libraries. Then, an overview of the projects is presented in the areas of digitization on demand (crowdfunding) and OCR correction with gamification and folksonomy. It is followed by a state of the art, a review and analysis on crowdsourcing applied to digitization and digital libraries. Finally, conceptual contributions and original experiments, with Numalire, a crowdfunding and digitization on demand project are presented.