Latest Article Alert from Malaria Journal

The following new articles have just been published in Malaria Journal

For articles using Author Version-first publication you will see a provisional PDF corresponding to the accepted manuscript. In these instances, the fully formatted Final Version PDF and full text (HTML) versions will follow in due course.

Case report
First report of a phylogenetic analysis of an autochthonous Plasmodium

Latest Article Alert from Respiratory Research

The following new articles have just been published in Respiratory Research

For articles using Author Version-first publication you will see a provisional PDF corresponding to the accepted manuscript. In these instances, the fully formatted Final Version PDF and full text (HTML) versions will follow in due course.

Research
Cigarette smoke enhances human rhinovirus-induced CXCL8 production via

Latest Article Alert from Breast Cancer Research

The following new articles have just been published in Breast Cancer Research

For articles using Author Version-first publication you will see a provisional PDF corresponding to the accepted manuscript. In these instances, the fully formatted Final Version PDF and full text (HTML) versions will follow in due course.

Review
Recent advances reveal IL-8 signaling as a potential key to targeting

Latest Article Alert from BMC Infectious Diseases

The following new articles have just been published in BMC Infectious Diseases

For articles using Author Version-first publication you will see a provisional PDF corresponding to the accepted manuscript. In these instances, the fully formatted Final Version PDF and full text (HTML) versions will follow in due course.

Case report
Descending necrotizing mediastinitis associated with Lactobacillus

Walruses Choose Alaskan Beaches as Sea Ice Recedes

6383855895_6e201302dd_z

With sea ice receding in the Arctic, animals that rely on this ice to rest are being forced to find alternate places to haul out. Pacific walruses, like those pictured above, are retreating from their typical resting spots on ice in the Chukchi Sea and instead heading to land on Alaskan beaches to rest in the summer. With animals closer to shore, it is easier for researchers to study these populations and obtain data that was previously difficult to capture.

Flying over the herds in a helicopter, researchers took videos of walruses as they lay on beaches (see the clip below) and evaluated their demographics. Researchers looked for distinguishing features to identify males and females and used Fay’s method which considers head morphology and the ratio of an individual’s tusk length to snout width or depth to estimated age. They found that a majority of the herd was comprised of females and young less than two years old.

The walruses seemed to gather in much larger groups on land than they did at sea, perhaps simply because the space allowed but this may also be a strategy to protect from predators that is not possible on ice.  Gathering in these large groups of up to 19,000 individuals, however, increases the risk of trampling calves. The researchers suggest this may be why young were found in greater numbers along the outer edges of the groups rather than within the herd. Being on the outside could possibly also allow a quick escape into the water should the herd be disturbed.

As sea ice continues to recede, populations of Pacific walrus, as well as other animals, will continue to adjust their behavior to survive. Monitoring their population dynamics could provide insight to how their habits may be influenced by climate change.

For more research on pinnipeds in PLOS ONE, check out this post on the cooling abilities of baby seals, or this video of a seal lion feeling its way through water on our Youtube Channel!

Citation: Monson DH, Udevitz MS, Jay CV (2013) Estimating Age Ratios and Size of Pacific Walrus Herds on Coastal Haulouts using Video Imaging. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69806. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069806

Image: Walrus 2 from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters http://bit.ly/19TeYMp

Latest Article Alert from Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology

The following new articles have just been published in Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology

For articles using Author Version-first publication you will see a provisional PDF corresponding to the accepted manuscript. In these instances, the fully formatted Final Version PDF and full text (HTML) versions will follow in due course.

Research
The association between amalgam dental

Latest Article Alert from BMC Medicine

The following new articles have just been published in BMC Medicine

For articles using Author Version-first publication you will see a provisional PDF corresponding to the accepted manuscript. In these instances, the fully formatted Final Version PDF and full text (HTML) versions will follow in due course.

Review
Rapid diagnostics of tuberculosis and drug resistance in the industrialized world:

Latest Article Alert from BMC Health Services Research

The following new articles have just been published in BMC Health Services Research

For articles using Author Version-first publication you will see a provisional PDF corresponding to the accepted manuscript. In these instances, the fully formatted Final Version PDF and full text (HTML) versions will follow in due course.

Research article
A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled,

Latest Article Alert from BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

The following new articles have just been published in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

For articles using Author Version-first publication you will see a provisional PDF corresponding to the accepted manuscript. In these instances, the fully formatted Final Version PDF and full text (HTML) versions will follow in due course.

Study protocol
Prospective memory and chronic heart failure
Habota T,

A way with words: Data mining uncloaks authors’ stylistic flair

First_Folio_-_Folger_Shakespeare_Library_-_DSC09660

As any writer or wordsmith knows, searching for the right word can be a painful struggle. Here’s comforting news: word choice may be the key to understanding your stylistic flair.

New research in the field of text mining suggests that distinct writing styles are discernible by word selection and frequency. Even the use of common words, such as “you” and “say,” can help distinguish one writer from another. To learn more about style, the authors of a recent PLOS ONE paper turned to the famed lord of language, William Shakespeare.

The researchers assembled a pool of 168 plays written during the 16th and 17th centuries. After accounting for duplicates, 55,055 unique words were identified and then cross-referenced against the work of four writers from that time period: William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton, and John Fletcher. The researchers counted how often these writers used words from the pool and ranked words by their frequency. Lists of twenty of the most-used and least-used words were then compiled for each writer and considered “markers” of their individual styles.

Fletcher, for one, frequently used the word “ye” in his plays, so a relatively high frequency of “ye” would be a strong marker of Fletcher’s particular writing style. Similarly, Middleton often used “that” in the demonstrative sense, and Jonson favored the word “or.” Shakespeare himself used “thou” the most frequently, and the word “all” the least.

In addition to looking at individual word use, the researchers analyzed specific works where the writer’s style changed significantly, such as in Middleton’s political satire “A Game at Chess,” which was notably different from his other works. They also compared word choice between writers. Their findings indicate that, unlike his contemporaries, Shakespeare’s style was marked more by his underuse of words rather than his overuse. Take, for example, Shakespeare’s use of “ye.” Unlike Fletcher, who used this word liberally, “ye” is one of Shakespeare’s least frequently used words.

Such analyses, the researchers suggest, may help with authorship controversies and disputes, but they can also address other concerns. In a post in The Conversation, the authors of this paper suggest that the mathematical method used to identify words as markers of style may also be helpful to identify biomarkers in medical research. In fact, the research team currently uses these methods to study cancer and the selection of therapeutic combinations, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Citation: Marsden J, Budden D, Craig H, Moscato P (2013) Language Individuation and Marker Words: Shakespeare and His Maxwell’s Demon. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66813. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066813

Image: First Folio – Folger Shakespeare Library – DSC09660, Wikimedia Commons