Frontier Knowledge and Scientific Production: Evidence from the Collapse of International Science

“We show that WWI and the subsequent boycott against Central scientists severely interrupted international scientific cooperation. After 1914, citations to recent research from abroad decreased and paper titles became less similar (evaluated by Latent Semantic Analysis), suggesting a reduction in international knowledge flows. Reduced international scientific cooperation led to a decline in the production of basic science and its application in new technology. Specifically, we compare productivity changes for scientists who relied on frontier research from abroad, to changes for scientists who relied on frontier research from home. After 1914, scientists who relied on frontier research from abroad published fewer papers in top scientific journals, produced less Nobel Prize-nominated research, introduced fewer novel scientific words, and introduced fewer novel words that appeared in the text of subsequent patent grants. The productivity of scientists who relied on top 1% research declined twice as much as the productivity of scientists who relied on top 3% research. Furthermore, highly prolific scientists experienced the starkest absolute productivity declines. This suggests that access to the very best research is key for scientific and technological progress…..

Our findings contribute to the literature on the effect of basic science on technological development, a link that is diffcult to establish empirically. Our results indicate that access to frontier knowledge impacts the production of basic science that is applied in the development of new technology. Other research has shown that increased funding from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) for basic biomedical research increases patenting by private sector companies (Azoulay et al., 2016) and that NIH open access mandates increase citations to biomedical research by inventors (Bryan and Ozcan, 2016).2 Our findings emphasize that access to existing frontier research is particularly important for the creation of ideas and that high-quality scientists make greater use of it….”

A global multiproxy database for temperature reconstructions of the Common Era | Scientific Data

“Proxy records used in the PAGES2k synthesis products are publicly available through previous publications or online data archives, or because their owners made them available for inclusion in this open-access data product. The original data for 49 records are made available for the first time in this data product (specified in Supplementary Table 1). Open access is a critical component of this endeavor, and led us to reject some records that would have been suitable under the other criteria. …”

On sponsorship, transparency, scholarly publishing, and open access

“Sponsorship in the research and library communities is pervasive today, and scholarly publishers are some of the most generous providers of it. This generosity comes at a time when scholarly communication is in sore need of root-and-branch reform. However, since publishers’ interests are no longer aligned with the needs of the research community, and they have a vested interest in the legacy system, the research community might be best to avoid publisher sponsorship. Yet researchers and librarians seek it out on a daily basis….”

eLife Continuum for Publishers — Registration

  1. Mon, Jul 24, 2017 11:00 AM – 12:00 PM EDT

“We invite you to join us and learn more about the eLife Continuum suite of services and applications available to publishers. During the webinar, we’ll discuss how we developed the platform and how the newly redesigned front end fits into the suite of existing tools. We would also like your feedback on other services that you use, with a view to potentially incorporating them into the platform in future.”

 

How IBM is using the world’s surplus computer power to help the planet | Ethical Corporation

“This week, the scientific community is being offered a new opportunity to advance the quest for ways to combat climate change. IBM is inviting scientists around the world to apply for a technology grant (valued at $40m) of crowd-sourced supercomputing power, meteorological data from The Weather Company, and IBM Cloud storage to support their climate or environmental research project. 

Up to five of the most promising environmental and climate-related research projects will be supported, with technology and services contributions valued commercially at approximately $200 million….

In return for this support, winning scientists agree to support open science by publicly releasing the research data from their collaboration with us, enabling the global community to benefit from and build upon their findings.? …”

44% of VU and VUmc scientific output is published Open Access in 2016 – [jul-sep] – University Library, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

“44% of all peer-reviewed publications of the VU and the VUmc are published Open Access.

This includes all articles, letters, reviews and books that are available immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download on the website of the publisher. The policy of the Dutch universities is starting to pay off. During the past two years, universities have made agreements with publishers including Springer, Taylor & Francis and Elsevier about funding Open Access publishing.”

The Foxfire of Fair Use: The Google Books Litigation and the Future of Copyright Law – infojustice

Abstract:  This article considers the dynamic evolution of copyright exceptions and limitations in the United States in light of new technological developments. There has been significant legal debate in the courts and in the United States Congress in respect of the scope of the defence of fair use. The copyright litigation over Google Books has been a landmark development in the modern history of copyright law. The victory by Google Inc. over The Authors Guild in the decade long copyright dispute is an important milestone on copyright law. The ruling of Leval J emphasizes the defence of fair use in the United States plays a critical role in promoting transformative creativity, freedom of speech, and innovation. The Supreme Court of the United States was decisive in its rejection of The Authors Guild’s efforts to challenge the decision of Leval J. There has been significant debate in the United States Copyright Office and United States Congress over the development of ‘the Next Great Copyright Act’. Hearings have taken place within the United States Congressional system about the history, nature, and future of the defence of fair use under United States copyright law. There remains much debate about the internationalisation of the defence of fair use, and the need for the trading partners of the United States to enjoy similar flexibilities in respect of copyright exceptions. There has been concern about the impact of mega-regional trade agreements – such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership – upon copyright exceptions – such as the defence of fair use.

Front-of-neck airway meets front-of-neck simulation: improving cricothyroidotomy skills using a novel open-access three-dimensional model and the Airway App | SpringerLink

The authors designed a 3D artificial trachea to help guide the hands of those performing an emergency cricothyrotomy. Excerpt: “We are pleased to provide our 3D-printable cricothyrotomy file as a free-of-charge download on our website (www.airwaycollaboration.org). We encourage readers to print their own 3D model. We also encourage readers, should they perform an emergency cricothyrotomy, to share their experiences anonymously on the Airway App5 (available free of charge from the Apple App Store or Googleplay) so others can learn from their experiences.”

A Fantastic Milestone for Texas ScholarWorks! | Open Access at UT

TSW [Texas ScholarWorks] has now surpassed over 50,000 items! From theses and dissertations to newsletters to articles to student journals, we provide a wide-ranging collection of what is being produced by the UT Austin Community. We have been accessed millions of times by people in almost every country in the world! Thank you for your continued support.”

Institutional eRepository Hits Two Million Downloads – Seton Hall University

Seton Hall University’s Institutional Repository, eRepository, officially hit the two million mark for worldwide downloads as of July 7, 2017. Maintained by the Seton Hall University Libraries in partnership with Seton Hall Law, the eRepository exists as a publishing service for the preservation and dissemination of University scholarly works. Faculty works profiles as well as Seton Hall published journals, conference materials, student theses and doctoral dissertations are centrally archived and available for digital download as reference materials for research and other similar efforts.